Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after one year (or longer) of unprotected intercourse. Because women's fertility declines progressively with age, some providers analyze and treat women aged 35 and up after 6 months of unprotected sex. Women experiencing infertility should consult a reproductive health care expert who specializes in infertility management. The reproductive healthcare expert may also be able to assist women who have experienced two or more spontaneous miscarriages.
To become pregnant
- One of a woman's ovaries must release an egg.
- A man's sperm must join with the egg along the road (fertilize).
- The fertilized egg must travel through a fallopian tube to reach the uterus (womb).
- The embryo must become attached to the uterine wall (implantation).
- Infertility can be caused by a problem with one or more of these processes.
Causes of infertility in men
- Impaired fecundity is a disorder associated with infertility that describes women who have trouble becoming pregnant or carrying a pregnancy to term.
- In order to become pregnant, all steps of ovulation and fertilization must be carried out correctly. Sometimes the problems that lead to infertility in couples are evident at birth, while other times they emerge later in life. Reasons for infertility may affect one or both partners. There are times when no cause can be found.
- Undescended testicles, genetic faults, health conditions such as diabetes, or infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, mumps, or HIV are all causes of sperm production or function disorders. Varicocele, or enlarged veins in the testes, may potentially affect the quality of the semen.
- Problems with sperm delivery are caused by sexual issues, such as premature ejaculation; specific hereditary disorders, such as cystic fibrosis; anatomical issues, such as a blockage in the testicle or damage to the reproductive organs.
Causes of infertility in female
- Injury or occlusion of the Fallopian tubes, which is frequently caused by Fallopian tube inflammation (salpingitis). This could be due to a sexually transmitted infection, endometriosis, adhesions, or pelvic inflammatory disease.
- Endometriosis, a condition in which endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus, can impair the function of the ovaries, uterus, and Fallopian tubes.
- Pelvic adhesions are scar tissue bands that bind organs and can form as a result of a pelvic infection, appendicitis, endometriosis, or abdominal or pelvic surgery.
- Cancer and how it is treated Female fertility is frequently impaired by certain diseases, particularly reproductive tumors. Radiation and chemotherapy can both have an impact on fertility.
What is the treatment for infertility?
Infertility treatments include
- Fertility medications modify hormonal levels to trigger ovulation.
- Surgery can be used to unblock obstructed Fallopian tubes as well as remove uterine fibroids and polyps. Endometriosis surgery has twice the chance of a woman getting pregnant.
Male infertility treatments include
- Medicine: Remedies can increase the amount of testosterone or other hormones. There are additional medicines available to treat erectile dysfunction.
- Surgery: Clogs in the tubes that store and transfer sperm may necessitate surgery for certain men. Varicocele surgery can improve sperm health and increase the chances of pregnancy.